Indonesian National Awakening (Hari Kebangkitan Nasional)



Indonesia's NationalAwakening was the period in the first half of the 20th century, where many Indonesians began to foster a sense of national awareness as "Indonesians". This period was marked by two important events, namely the establishment of Boedi Oetomo (May 20, 1908) and the Pledge of Youth Pledge (28 October 1928). This period is one of the effects of ethical politics that has been fought since the Multatuli period.
Figure
Figures that have pioneered National Awakening include:
1. Sutomo
1. Dr. Tjipto Mangunkusumo
2. Raden Mas Soewardi Soerjaningrat
3. Dr. Douwes Dekker

Origin
In 1912 the first Political Party was established in Indonesia (the Dutch East Indies), Indische Partij. That same year Haji Samanhudi founded the Sarekat Dagang Islam (in Solo), KH Ahmad Dahlan founded Muhammadiyah (in Yogyakarta), Dwijo Sewoyo and friends founded the Life Insurance Joint Boemi Poetra in Magelang. The rise of the Indonesian national movement did not begin with the establishment of Boedi Oetomo, but actually began with the establishment of the Islamic Sarekat Trade in 1905 at Pasar Laweyan, Solo.
This union initially stood to rival the dominance of Chinese traders at that time. Then it developed into a movement organization so that in 1906 it changed its name to Sarekat Islam.
Suwardi Suryaningrat who is a member of the Boemi Poetera Committee, wrote "Als ik eens Nederlander was" ("If I were a Dutchman"), on July 20, 1913 who protested strongly the plan of the Dutch East Indies government to celebrate 100 years of Dutch independence in the Indies. Because of this writing, Dr. Tjipto Mangunkusumo and Suwardi Suryaningrat were convicted and exiled to Banda and Bangka, but due to "being able to vote", both were banished to the Netherlands. There, Suwardi actually studied education and dr. Tjipto due to illness was returned to the Dutch East Indies.

Celebration
Since 1959, May 20 has been designated as National Awakening Day, abbreviated as Harkitnas, which is a national day that is not a holiday determined by the Indonesian government through Presidential Decree No. 316 of 1959 dated December 16, 1959 to commemorate the events of the Indonesian National Awakening.

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